Glutathione (GSH and GSSG) is one of the body’s natural antioxidants. Free-radicals (by-products of oxidation) are capable of inflicting serious damage to the corneal endothelium and other delicate intraocular structures during ophthalmic surgery. There is evidence to suggest that glutathione is an effective free-radical scavenger. Glutathione also maintains the junctional complexes of corneal endothelial cells1 and protects the integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier.2 The tissues within the eye are highly sensitive to depletion of cellular glutathione levels. Depletion of cellular glutathione can result in cell apoptosis.3 BSS PLUS® Irrigating Solution has the ability to deliver a continuous supply of glutathione to the surgical site.
Sodium bicarbonate is the body’s natural buffer. It is the major ion in the formation of aqueous humor and is vital for maintaining the blood-aqueous barrier. Sodium bicarbonate is also essential for maintaining retinal function. Studies have shown that omission of bicarbonate leads to significant alterations in both light-induced ERG potentials4 and metabolism of the isolated rat retina.5
Dextrose is the primary energy source of cellular function. Dextrose helps maintain transparency of the cornea and lens and is critical for maintaining optimal retinal functions. Endothelial and retinal cells can rapidly become stressed or compromised when deprived of nourishment. Other intraocular irrigating solutions do not contain the ions, nutrients, and substrates necessary to sustain healthy, normal functioning of ocular tissues. This is why a complete perfusion solution makes good sense in ocular procedures.
Chemical Composition Comparison
Chemical composition of human aqueous humor, vitreous humor, BSS PLUS® Irrigating Solution and BSS® irrigating solution (all concentrations expressed in mmol/L or mEq/L solution)6